Sabtu, 28 Agustus 2010
Coming all the way to Nias, however, tourists should not limit themselves to stone jumping and surfing, since the island — with a civilization dating back to the Dongson period of North Vietnam — has a unique traditional architecture adapted to the frequent earthquake tremors in the region as George Junus Aditjondro writes.
Two original solutions were created by the Nias ancestors. Firstly, all houses were set on a series of vertical pillars (enomo) which are not anchored into the ground, but rest on stone blocks.
Secondly, the vertical pillars were reinforced by slanting piles (ndriwa), which created a very resistant earthquake-proof three-dimensional structure.
While surviving earthquakes, Nias traditional architecture is presently endangered by two big challenges, namely deforestation and modernization. Nias has largely been stripped of its forests over the past 150 years since head hunting ceased and the population grew rapidly. This has nearly depleted the native efoa, manawa dano, and simalambuo hardwood trees, used for the pillars of the traditional clan houses (omo hada), chief houses (omo sebua or omo nifolasara) and large meeting halls (omo bale).
Secondly, modernization has reduced the strength of the clan (mado), with most Nias people preferring now to live in Malay houses, while the government has also forsaken Nias traditional architecture in all official buildings.
The billions of rehabilitation and reconstruction dollars channeled to Nias through the NAD-Nias Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Body (BRR), overlooked the need to revive this cultural heritage of Nias.
Fortunately, two European charities — the German aid organization, Johanniter Unfall Hilfe, and the British Turnstone Tsunami Fund — have assisted the rebuilding of remaining omo hada on the island. Johanniter cooperated with the Nias Heritage Museum (Museum Pusaka Nias) in Gunungsitoli, the capital of the Nias district, while the Turnstone Tsunami Fund cooperated with the Medan-based North Sumatera Heritage.
With Johanniter’s assistance, Museum Pusaka Nias has helped families rehabilitate 26 traditional wooden houses in 13 villages. In addition, with financial assistance from the U.S. Embassy in Jakarta and the Muenster and Konstant Municipalities in Germany, the Museum has rehabilitated eight more traditional houses in seven other villages. Then, with the assistance of other donors, the Museum has distributed funds — ranging from Rp 200,000 to Rp 5,000,000 — to 357 traditional house owners to rebuild their traditional houses.
The museum was trusted by all those donors due to the serious dedication of its director, Johannes Hammerle, OFM Cap, a naturalized German-born priest, to revive Nias traditional architecture. The Museum director has studied chief houses (omo sebua) since 1990, and supervised the construction of the museum compound — with its various wooden buildings — according to Nias traditional architecture, involving Nias and German carpenters.
In the museum compound, one can observe a South Nias rectangular wooden house, used as a guest house, where the author has twice stayed, and a North Nias oval wooden house, used as an office building. The oval house, called omo laraga, originated from Sinandraolo village near Gunung Sitoli. Owned by the family of Ama Jeni Telaumbanua, it collapsed during the 2005 earthquake.
The traditional house was rebuilt in the museum compound and modernized with an indoor toilet, with the financial assistance of Brigitte Ott and Guenter Ott and their colleagues from the German International School in Jakarta. The omo laraga was inaugurated on June 22, 2007, with the traditional house inauguration dance, Fameheu Omo, by high school kids dancing and jumping on the floor, to test the house’s structural strength.
Meanwhile, the Turnstone Tsunami Fund has rebuilt the chief house (omo nifolasara) in the village of Hilinawalo Mazingo, the oldest omo hada in Southern Nias. This magnificent chief house had survived nearly three centuries, but was in desperate need of restoration after falling victim to intense sun, rain, insect infestation, neglect, and finally, the March 2005 earthquake.
In 2005 and 2006, the Turnstone Tsunami Fund focused on training a younger generation of Nias men, ranging from 23 to 50 years of age, by the elderly village carpenter, Ama Liana, in four-week courses, supported by the Carpenter’s Company of the City of London.
Following two carpentry courses, all houses in Hilinawalo Mazingo and four surrounding villages had been fully repaired by mid 2006. In addition, this project also supported a reforestation education project with local teenagers, led by a Nias school teacher, Yamin, and using afoa seedlings.
Diposkan oleh Jun H24 di 13.50
One of Indonesia's most exotic destinations, Nias Island combines a great surfing break, the most beautiful of beaches and a culture older than history. Nias has the size of but outside of the months of June and July it is a quiet place and great to relax. The most important places on the island are Gunung Sitoli in the north, and Teluk Dalam in the south. Teluk Dalam is close to Lagundri/Sorake which has the best beaches and surfing. Lagundri/Sorake is called the CITY SURF by tourist who ever visit Nias Island.
After the movement of Nias people from Gomo to others place, they were going to make a new settlement at the new area, and it might be close to their origin. One of the places they have reached is Teluk Dalam at the South of Nias Island. In the time of inventing the new life style and the growing population, the people of Nias made the community of life more advanced and more organized. Such as they built a village ruled by the land lord, the houses bigger, the construction stronger, more finely, and the new rules.
Landlord (balugu) was the person who could make an extraordinary feast, built a big traditional house (omo sebua/omo hada), fed the people, or we can say “The richest person” at the time. Even in Nias Island they follow the paternalism, every person could be a landlord (balugu), and he should fulfill the requirements to be called as a landlord (balugu), such as to make a big feast, to feed the people, to build the traditional house some others requirements. Landlord (balugu) had a big influence to the people, and had a big role in deciding something pertaining to the village. Besides the system of life, he created the warriors to defense his authority, his power. The main idea is” SELF DEFENSE” or “Community Defense. Certainly he had the best warriors at the time. The warriors need to pass some test, one of them such Stone Jumping (Fohombo). During the past, this activity is showing the maturity of a man (ready to be a skillful and a great warrior, ready to take responsibility to be a husband, ready to defense the village or community, ready to die for the people and used to be meaning to win a war). Also this activity is influenced by the construction of village in South Nias, mostly traditional village in South Nias built in hill area to protect them from wild animal, uneasy access, get more the sun light or still be affected by their belief at the time which always close to the sun, as well as become as a fortress, and the village is blocked by trench. The stone jumper used to jump over the enemies trench to get in to the trench and opened the enemies’ gate for his companion. To get in, the warrior need to be trained and must be a tough guy, so they made a practical through jumping the stone with height approximately 2 meters However now it used to attract visitors, or to hold a village celebrations.
Diposkan oleh Jun H24 di 13.34